Another illustration from the Diderot encyclopedia shows the operation of trepanning a skull and some surgical tools in common use in the eighteenth century, in colonial America as well as in Europe.

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Williamsburg [he wrote] is but a small Village containing not more than 60 families, at most; and in and about this City are no less than 25 or 30 phisitians, and of that number not above 2 capable of living handsomly. So that I did not think it proper to stay, in a place where so many of my profession are lickely to starve.

Little is known about any of these “phisitians,” not even the names of most. It seems fairly sure, however, that a number were quacks. Gooch had complained in the same letter about the “unskilfulness of practioners in this country” but was gullible enough himself to pay 60 pounds from public funds and give freedom to a Negro slave for the secret of the latter’s alleged cure of venereal diseases. It turned out to be a decoction of roots and barks, which the Governor avowed to be “a certain Remedy here” and sent samples so the College of Physicians could try its effect in England.

Most of Gooch’s abundant 밤알바 physicians almost certainly made up their own prescriptions. From 1622 at Jamestown until 1731 in Williamsburg no mention of an apothecary in Virginia has been found in historical records. In the latter year, however, there were four shops purveying drugs and compounding medicines in Williamsburg. The proprietors of two were doctors—Dr. George Gilmer and Dr. Kenneth  McKenzie; the other two were druggists or “chymists”—Thomas Wharton and Thomas Goodwin.

Goodwin did not remain independent long. After about two years he joined Dr. Robert Davidson, mayor of Williamsburg, in a partnership that was itself dissolved in two years by the death of Dr. Davidson. Thomas Wharton, on the other hand, kept shop in Williamsburg for some eleven years. He had arrived in Virginia about 1703 as an 11 indentured servant to a Dr. Richard Wright and had acquired by the time of his death in 1746 not only a pharmaceutical business, but the title of “Doctor.” He willed his drugs, medicines, and shop utensils to Dr.  McKenzie.